Quick Clip: How to attack the McMansion fire

Posted on Thu, 6 Nov 2014 09:04:53 UTC

Download this quick clip on iTunes, SoundCloud or via RSS feed

In this week's quick clip, Chief Rob Wylie and Lt. Rom Duckworth talk about how to attack a McMansion fire.

"There are a lot of unique features to consider," Lt. Duckworth said. "As these things start popping up around your response area, you can't just think of them as slightly bigger homes. You have to take an entirely different approach."

Chief Wylie said pre-planning is the answer.

"Most people wouldn't mind you going around their house and taking measurements," Chief Wylie said. "As far as distances for hose lays, using preconnects, places to do ventilation, all of these things can be pre-planned just as you would on a commercial building."

How does your department pre-plan for these types of fires? Sound off in the comment section below.

Introducing Fire Chief Digital: Street smarts vs. book smarts, handling hometown MCIs and more

Posted on Thu, 2 Apr 2015 20:42:17 UTC

Welcome to the premiere edition of the Fire Chief Digital Edition, a new quarterly supplement to FireChief.com and the Fire Chief eNews that will bring a sharpened focus to some of the most challenging topics facing fire chiefs and fire service leaders everywhere. We're excited to return to the print roots of Fire Chief, and we think you'll enjoy the Digital Edition, which will feature contributions from some of the top experts and progressive thinkers in the fire service.

In the Spring 2015 edition of Fire Chief Digital, brought to you by California Casualty, Billy Hayes takes on a controversial topic: what's more important for a fire chief, street smarts or book smarts? Also, Sarah Calams talks to some volunteer fire chiefs about how to prepare for active-shooter situation.

Robert Avsec rounds up a panel of the country's top fire chiefs for an in-depth discussion on safety culture and how you can get buy-in from your department, and Rick Markley addresses a topic that all fire chiefs dread: the hometown MCI.

Click on the cover below to open the Fire Chief Digital Edition:

6 ways to defend yourself against verbal abuse

Posted on Mon, 29 Jul 2013 09:08:57 UTC

For years now, I have taught EMS responders to keep in mind that nothing a patient says is personal. While teaching classes on successful verbal interactions with patients, I have frequently emphasized that the patient doesn’t know you. Therefore, nothing that they say can be taken personally. How could it be personal if they don’t know you personally?

I’ve changed my mind. Sometimes, the verbal abuse hurled at us can be personal. And not taking it personally can be remarkably difficult. Verbal abuse is a hostile act and it is intended to cause harm.

Since a verbal attack leaves no physical mark, we often ignore its intent, and we also disregard its potential to harm us. But, I’ve come to believe that these episodes can do harm, if we fail to properly defend ourselves emotionally. To do that, we first have to recognize that a verbal attack on our person is not benign, even though we’ve been taught otherwise.

As children, we learned that "sticks and stones can break our bones but words could never hurt us." I believed it. You probably believed it too. The childhood nursery rhyme is wrong. Words can hurt us. Some words can hurt for a long time. Some words can be carried with us for a lifetime and nobody will ever see the scars.

Our awareness that verbal abuse can be harmful begins with the recognition that some of our patients are remarkably good at verbal abuse. Many of them have been victims of abuse themselves and they learned the language of abuse at a very young age. Some verbal attackers can size us up remarkably fast and pick out our weaknesses and insecurities with great accuracy.

Physical and social targets
The target of the verbal abuser's attack may be physical or social. Any physical imperfection you have may become a target for a verbal attack including your weight, height, the size of your nose, your receding hairline or your visible birthmark. If the verbal abuser suspects that you harbor any insecurity over your appearance he or she will likely take a shot.

If a physical feature can’t easily be exploited, then social attributes may also be tested. Gender, race, religious beliefs and sexual orientation tend to be effective areas of emotional vulnerability. What could be more personal than our gender, our ethnicity, our belief about creation or our choices regarding physical intimacy? These things define us as a person. They are deeply personal and that’s why they are so frequently the subject of verbal attacks.

This recognition that verbal abuse can be extremely personal has left me considering an important question. What should we do to defend ourselves against verbal abuse from our patients?

Here are some of the ideas with which I’ve been experimenting:

1. Recognize that you are being attacked: While a verbal assault may not be as obvious as a punch or a kick, but it is still an attack. The person targeting you with verbal abuse is attempting to hurt you. They want you to feel pain and discomfort. They want to feel that they have control, power and influence over you. They want you to feel hurt, sad or angry and they are probably quite good at instigating these feelings. While you may have been trained to ignore these behaviors, recognizing and defending yourself against a verbal assault is appropriate. Your internal defense against a verbal attack may be as invisible as the words that that the patient spoke, but it should still exist.

2. Check your physical safety: Physical assaults are often preceded by a verbal attack. Use the patient’s verbal aggressiveness as a prompt to reconsider your safety. Is the patient properly restrained? Do you have the resources available to manage the patient’s potential for escalation? Do you know the location of your exits? Do you have a reliable way to call for help? Verbal abuse should immediately prompt you to double check your physical safety. If you aren’t safe, back off until the resources you require are present.

3. Relax your posture: It’s easier to remain calm if you have an open body posture and relaxed muscles. Take a deep breath. Open your hands. Calm your facial expression and think about your words before you speak. Just because the patient is speaking with a rapid cadence doesn’t mean that you need to have a quick response. As long as you are not in physical danger, there is no need to move or speak quickly. You can move the scene forward at your own pace. Have confidence in your own authority. Do your best to keep yourself relaxed, calm and alert.

4. Say to yourself, “How interesting:” The phrase, “How interesting,” places us in a powerful position of analysis. When we make a conscious choice to analyze a situation we change our mindset. The process of analysis reminds us that we always have the ability to choose how we will feel in response to something someone says. Consider why the patient feels that causing others emotional pain is their best course of action. How has this worked for them in the past? This is a behavior that few people witness on a regular basis. The fact that it is rare makes it interesting on at least a cursory level. Choosing fascination over anger can help you see the big picture.

5. Make an honest observation: We’ve been trained to ignore the hurtful things that patients sometimes say, but I’ve been exploring a more reserved confrontational option. Instead of dismissing the remark, try calling the patient’s bluff and identifying the nature of their aggressive statements. Try a response like, “That’s a very hurtful thing for you to say.” or “Those remarks are highly inappropriate.” or “I’m not going to engage in a conversation that’s profane or hateful.” Calling the patient out on their own inappropriateness might be more effective than simply pretending that they aren’t being verbally abusive.

6. Consciously forgive the offense: Forgiveness is a powerful tool. I don’t believe that people are born with hatred inside of them. Hatred is learned and it is something that passes from person to person. The patient’s ability to verbally attack you is something that they learned consciously or not. After the call is over, take a moment and purposefully allow yourself to forgive the patient for every attempt that they made to cause you emotional pain. When you choose to forgive the patient for the words that they spoke, you automatically place yourself in a position of power. You recognize that the words that were spoken did have the power to hurt you and you also have the power to heal, let go and move on.

If you work in EMS, it is almost inevitable that you will be the subject of verbal abuse. What do you do to cope with the hurtful things that patients’ can sometimes say? Do you have any good tips for managing the verbally aggressive patient?

Integrating drones into disaster response operations

Posted on Thu, 14 May 2015 16:23:22 UTC

By Anthony Galante, Jeremy Nikolow, and Dr. Chuck Russo

On April 25, a massive 7.8-magnitude earthquake ripped through the heart of central Nepal. The quake tore through the Kathmandu Valley, which lies along the southern edge of the Himalayas, with a devastating force equivalent to approximately 20 hydrogen bombs.

The resulting devastation crippled the region razing entire villages and cities. There are more than 6,000 confirmed dead, however, the Nepalese Prime Minister said the death toll could exceed 10,000. Almost 500,000 people have been displaced from their homes and are now at risk of starvation, dehydration, injury, illness, and, ultimately, death.

?The geographic extent of this seismic catastrophe has been astonishing. The force of the quake reached Mount Everest, more than 100 miles away, causing an avalanche that killed 19 people and left hundreds stranded. About 90 miles to the north, the shock unleashed a monstrous landslide. Additional deaths and missing persons have been recorded in the neighboring countries of Tibet, India, Bangladesh, and China.

Full story: Visit the In Public Safety blog

Crisis intervention teams: Helping our own

Posted on Mon, 16 May 2011 10:01:15 UTC

In the public safety field, one of the least addressed topics is the mental wellness of our responders. When tragedy and violence hit, we're the first to be there. Having to care for people when they are at their worst, and having to deal with the impact of the call, can take its toll.

This tends to impact the first responders in many different ways. These individuals might be the first people to see the tragedy but they are the last to admit that it has had any emotional or mental effect to them. So, when an outside group comes in to intervene or defuse the situation, there is resistance from the first responders

First responders tend to rely on their comrades in the field. When outside groups or people try to intervene, the responders tend to be reluctant to their offers of help. "You have no idea what we do" is usually the cause for reluctance.

This is why we created a peer-driven support group that we call the Horry County Crisis Intervention Team (CIT). The team is made up of 11 peer support members, four councilors, one training instructor and one chaplain.

The CIT is continuing to grow and manage all of its internal staff as well as other departments in the local area. They are also recruiting police and 911 dispatchers to round off the group. This will make the CIT very versatile.

Horry County Fire Rescue covers more than 1,134 square miles and responds to more than 42,000 calls per year. The department is made up of 275 full-time uniformed staff and 200 volunteers.

The CIT for Horry County is no stranger to unique and very stressful calls. Some of the calls that the CIT has had to intervene with have been:

  • Horry County Fire Rescue roll-over engine call that had three firefighters and a lieutenant trapped
  • Horry County Fire Rescue volunteer went into cardiac arrest during a medical call and had to be intervened by the same members who responded with him
  • Horry County responded to a fellow firefighter's home, where he had already committed suicide. The crew prior to his shift from his own station responded
  • Multiple child abuse calls; some with death as a result
  • Multiple drowning calls involving children at local motel pools
  • Motor vehicle accident deaths involving children and infants
  • Multi- casualty incidents involving a large number of deaths

These are just some of the calls that have made an impact to Horry County Fire Rescue staff over the past couple of years. Those who responded to these have had the opportunity to get help from the CIT with positive results.

The CIT has also put together a White Paper to describe some of the statistics from the past three years. This paper will give other departments information in the field of crisis management so that they too can make their wellness program complete. Check it out here

7 truths about fire service retirement

Posted on Tue, 3 Mar 2015 15:34:49 UTC

Retirement from a life-long career can be a stressful event, regardless of the field. Research conducted in the military and law enforcement fields shows that retirement from a career in public safety can be more stressful than retirement from the civilian workforce.

Most firefighters I've ever had the pleasure to know have worked hard to get their first job. For many of us, that journey started in the volunteer ranks where we cut our teeth in the business.

Many others worked for two or three paid-on-call services or "comboed" a fire department job with an EMS gig before getting that one job that paid enough to make it their sole fire service endeavor.

Then once we were in, we immersed ourselves in the fire service culture. Our fellow firefighters became our second family; truth be known, we spent more time with that family than we did with our spouses and children.

The break up
When that retirement date comes and goes it might seem like a divorce. Suddenly, that second family will be nowhere to be found. Getting into the fire service was easy compared to what it was like to leave it.

The only other careers that parallel that of the fire service — that strong sense of camaraderie, daily exposures to the unknown, and retirement at an early age — are found in law enforcement and the military.

Here are a few things that you can expect to experience once you hang up your turnout gear for the last time.

1. The loss of camaraderie is real.
No matter how much you complained, you will miss your fire service family within a relatively short period of time. The term divorce is an apt description, despite it being an amiable one.

When you return to your former second home, you'll likely feel that you only have visitation rights, especially when you start seeing all those new faces.

2. The normal world is sometimes a crazy place.
After years of living on a work cycle (mine was 24 hours on and 48 hours off), you'll find yourself needing to adjust to the world of the 40-hour work week, especially if you take on another job.

It was always much easier to shop, make doctor appointments, schedule vacations and the like when weekday hours were fully in play.

3. You'll never be busier than after you retire.
Many of my fellow retirees have remarked how busy they became after they retired. Whether it was getting to all those "honey-do" projects that you never seemed to have time for or taking care of business for family and friends, your weekly schedule can fill up in a hurry.

4. What to wear becomes a confusing.
Choosing what to wear was a lot easier when it meant grabbing a clean uniform. Most guys don't want to admit this, but wardrobe management is not necessarily in our DNA.

If you go into another field of work after retirement that requires real clothes — not one of the 100 polo shirts you accumulated over your fire service career — you can spend more than a few minutes each day finding matching clothes. Over time that equals hours, then days, then weeks that you spend doing nothing but thinking about what shirt to wear.

5. Finding work that's as fulfilling as firefighting hard.
A colleague, upon her retirement, said, "I'm not retiring, I'm 'refiring.'" For most of us, retiring in our mid-50s means finding a new career to help pay for those mortgages and college tuition bills that keep coming.

We're trained to be America's problem solvers, those people call when they don't know who to call. While we're on the job many firefighters and officer might gripe about some of the calls that we respond to, especially those that we felt didn't need the fire department.

But it's hard to beat the sense of satisfaction that comes after you and your crew handled the difficult fire or motor vehicle crash or complicated rescue. It's tough to find that kind of satisfaction working in the non-fire service world.

6. The higher you are, the harder it is.
The higher the rank, the greater the sense of loss of friendships, prestige and self-esteem. In his Executive Fire Officer Program research paper "Problems and Success Factors Inherent in Fire Service Retirement," Gerald Bates wrote that he found a significant relationship between the participants' rank at the time of retirement and their perception of their personal and social relationships.

As we progress through the ranks, our circle of friends and colleagues shrinks. As officers, we learn to maintain that delicate balance between being friendly on the job with firefighters and junior officers and lapsing into friendships that can be detrimental to the good of the order. This is particularly true for men, as research has demonstrated that lasting male relationships are closely connected with their work.

Being a fire officer also means that you probably had some significant roles and responsibilities managing people, physical resources and budgets. After a career of shouldering those kinds of duties, it can be difficult to wake up one day as a team of one.

It can also be a difficult adjustment for your spouse and family as well; as my wife still tells me from time to time, "You're not the chief anymore." Reality check.

7. You'll become familiar with America's health care system.
Your health and wellness moves up on your list of life's priorities. Nothing says you've moved into the second half of life's football game like retirement.

Those little nagging aches and pains take on a new significance, especially when you don't have that peer pressure to keep working through them. Think about how many retired firefighters finally get surgeries for those knee and shoulder problems that they've been putting off for years.

A successful retirement
In his research, Bates found that 95.7 percent of his survey's participants felt that their retirement was successful.

"The primary determinant of a successful and satisfying retirement appeared to be directly related to the level of planning that went into it," he wrote. "The most satisfied retirees tended to be those who planned for their retirement several years in advance."

As firefighters, we know the value of conducting pre-plans for target hazards in our district and there's great value in applying that strategy to your second career. Consider these retirement target hazards and pre-plan accordingly.

  • Your personal characteristics.
  • Your reasons for retirement.
  • Your financial security.
  • Your level of activity in retirement.
  • Your social and personal relationships.
  • Your physical and mental health.

Everyone's responses to the above will be different, but the one key for everyone is to plan for your retirement early in your career. Begin early in your firefighting career and focus on your career expectations, long-range financial plans, and the importance of developing a career and retirement plan in general.

Firefighter rehab lessons from a triathlon

Posted on Thu, 25 Sep 2014 10:40:42 UTC

I recently had the pleasure of providing medical support at a New Jersey Ironman event. While working in the medical tent at the end of the 1.2-mile swim, 50-plus-mile bike ride and 12-mile run, it struck me how in many ways it was similar to a rehab sector at a major fire.

But upon further consideration, there were some significant differences as well.

First, I noticed how varied the participants were in terms of physical condition. I expected most or all to be in excellent physical shape to participate in the event. But there were many who were somewhat overweight — but they finished.

We experience the same at a fire scene. Some firefighters are in excellent shape and others could use a bit more diet and exercise. As medical providers, we need to be able to treat individuals of all shapes and sizes. But I will note that at this athletic event, the overweight participants were not the fastest, but they also in general did not need our medical services.

"I did not prepare"
The participants that did need medical evaluation had an almost universal statement: "I did not prepare or train as much as I should have."

We can all take a lesson here. We need to prepare ourselves for the task at hand, whether it be running a marathon or making a grab at a working structure fire.

Athletes have the advantage of knowing when they are going to compete. We do not.

Career firefighters' call to duty may be anticipated by shift, but in reality we need to be ready to go any time the bells go off. We need to train and prepare ahead of time so we can be of service to our community and not a burden to our fellow firefighters.

Guerrilla triage
Operationally, we found it quite valuable to station a couple EMTs at the finish line. Our tent was close, but these "triagers" were able to eyeball each participant and assess whether medical treatment was needed or if the runner was simply tired.

This is exactly the role I tend to assume on the fireground as a fire department physician. As firefighters are walking around, doing their assigned task or approaching the rehab sector, I look them in the eye and watch how they walk.

I am looking for a purposeful gaze, a steady gait and clear speech. They can be tired, but they should not have an alteration in mental status. Those that show these signs are engaged for further assessment.

Just as at a fire scene, the environmental conditions play a significant role in the number of individuals that presented for care. On this day, it was cloudy with temperatures in the 70s. This was ideal and certainly lessened the impact of the exertion.

On the fire scene we need to be aware of the conditions as well. A hot day with high humidity results in significant exertion even at a non-working fire scene. Awareness and anticipation allow us to be better prepared to care for those that need it.

Difference in focus
Again, there are a number of differences between the triathlon and the fire ground. Now I understand that what I describe below may not happen everywhere, but I have seen examples enough times that we must acknowledge they occur.

None of the triathlon athletes were embarrassed for needing medical evaluation and care. They did not try to minimize complaints or issues and they were honest with the medical providers, even if they had to stop in the middle of the race.

Too often I see firefighters (and tactical operators, law enforcement and other athletes) minimize their complaints with a goal of getting back in the fight. This is noble, but we must admit that it may be a bit selfish.

If you are hurt more than you let on, you could be a liability to your department, your mission, or your team. Be honest with us and let us help you get back on your feet to fight, even if it has to be on another day.

Perhaps this was a unique group of people, but these tri-athletes really seemed to work with us. As a result, we were able to effectively treat them and the number that had to go to the hospital during and after the event was very small.

What's in a name?
Obviously the other major difference was the overall situation. In one case we have a recreational athletic event, and in the other someone may have lost a home, occupants or fellow responders may have been injured or even killed. The stress level is inherently different.

This may explain the denial of complaints seen at fire rehab; rather than a conscious decision, firefighters may not realize how injured they are due to their focus. In addition, staffing can be an issue.

The athletic event was planned months in advance and staffing was known. The fire scene is unplanned, and staffing may be stretched on both the fire and EMS side, limiting our ability to be efficient in the rehab sector.

These two situations seemed similar, but in many ways were not. Even the name was different — we were medical or Athlete Medical Support.

I wonder if our thoughts (and sometimes prejudices) about the activities going on in a firefighter rehab sector would be different if we called it Firefighter Medical Support. Perhaps the term rehab has a negative connotation — implying that something is wrong with you that has to be fixed, like physical rehab, drug rehab, rehabbing an old house for example.

Stay safe.

Looking Is Not Always Seeing

Posted on Fri, 10 Jul 2009 11:06:28 UTC

A few years ago, I gave a patient assessment lecture to a group of EMTs. Early in the lecture, I announced that my assistant would be coming around with a handout. The assistant was a portly gentleman sporting a wide, ugly tie with yellow splotches. After standing in front of each student to distribute the material, he left the room.

Midway through the lecture, I asked the participants to describe his tie, thereby emphasizing the importance of observation to patient assessment. Most participants could not describe the tie or my assistant with any degree of accuracy. About 15 to 20 percent gave a fairly precise description of the tie, generally including the term 'ugly,' and a few must have been asleep as they wanted to know, "What assistant?"

The term for this aptly demonstrated phenomenon is 'inattentional blindness' because while we look, we don’t see. The information doesn’t register because our brains are focused elsewhere and ignoring the visual input. This may not pose a huge problem during a lecture, but can prove to be quite a predicament in the field.

How does our vision work?
Light waves (electromagnetic waves) are continuously bouncing off every object around us. Those light waves in the visible range (we can’t process ultraviolet or infrared waves) that get past the cornea and pupil then hit the retina in the back of the eye. The retina creates electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain, which in turn interprets the information and produces the vision that we 'see.' Don’t believe me? Close your eyes. What do you see?

Signal interpretation
Do we 'see' all the visual signals we receive? From where you are right now, stop reading and take a 180-degree or half-circle view of your surroundings, then close your eyes and recall what you just 'saw.' Now repeat the scan slower, paying attention to details and taking note of what you do not 'see.' All of the light waves bouncing off the objects in your visual field hit the retina and produce visual signals for the brain. Why did your brain fail to give you the total picture of what you saw? Information overload in any system can decrease performance, including your brain. To a significant degree, you determine what you see by the extent of attention you apply to what you are looking at or looking for. A lot of the visual input from the eyes to the brain never gets to perform on your brain's visual screen because you do not pay attention to the content. This can be both a blessing and a curse.

Blessing
Can you imagine trying to start an IV in a nice fat vein but as you start to insert the needle your vision is overwhelmed with mental images of surrounding objects such as the patient’s clothing, the cot, the blood on the floor, etc., etc., etc.? You would likely be hard-pressed to hit the vein. Our ability to concentrate visual signals on the task at hand helps us select the visual information we need to get the job done.

Curse
But what happens when we fail to recognize important visual input? Think about the last time you were providing patient care and asked yourself, "Where did THAT come from?" It might be when the visual input about your patient’s cyanotic lips and weak respirations were sidelined by the visual input of the bloody, deformed open femur fracture, or when you did not 'see' that large pool of blood on the floor before you kneeled down. Or perhaps you found yourself in such a situation after your failure to notice a weapon on the ground. All these events occurred within your field of vision, but failed to register with your brain.

Inattentional thinking
Inattentional blindness has a partner called 'inattentional thinking.' Dispatch sends you to the third intoxicated, unresponsive individual of the day or to the chronic back pain patient that you have visited too many times before. The danger is thinking that the problem is going to be the same as before, or that the scene is as safe as it was the last time you were there. If we fail to consciously evaluate the scene every time, or assess the patient every time regardless of presentation or how many times we have previously seen the patient with the same complaint, we may miss scene hazards or fail to benefit from an accurate patient assessment. What if the intoxicated patient noted above is not just drunk this time, but has a subdural hematoma that occurred from an unwitnessed fall, producing a dilated pupil that we did not think to check? What if the chronic back pain patient on this trip has an expanding abdominal aortic aneurysm that we failed to find because we did not think to examine the abdomen for a pulsatile mass? How many other 'what if' scenarios could feasibly exist?

Summary
We all fall victim to unwanted inattentional blindness and thinking. Decreasing the frequency of its occurrence requires awareness, and awareness is fueled by knowledge. If this is your first look at inattentional blindness, I would encourage further study. Resources include Blink, a book on this topic by Malcolm Gladwell, as well as print and video resources readily available by searching the Internet. In the mean time, keep your eyes open and pay attention out there.

References
1. Rensink RA, O’Regan JK, Clark JJ. To See or Not to See, The Need of Attention to Perceive Changes in Scenes. Psychological Science. 1997:8; 368-373.
2. Simons DJ, Chabris CF. Gorillas In Our Midst: Sustained Inattentional Blindness For Dynamic Events. Perception. 1999. 28; 1059-1074.
3. Rensink RA. When Good Observers Go Bad: Change Blindness, Inattentional Blindness, and Visual Experience. Psyche. 2000:8.
4. Rensink, RA. Seeing, Sensing, and Scrutinizing. Vision Research. 2000:40; 1469-1487.

How we're changing the status quo

Posted on Mon, 20 Dec 2010 14:39:32 UTC

American voters made a decision in the midterm elections in November this year. The decisions were based on a decision to change the status quo. The U.S. Fire Service apparently made a similar decision earlier in the year, too. The number of line-of-duty deaths recorded in 2010 is near the lowest in the past decade. The number of Safety Officers certified by the National Board of Firefighter Professional Qualifications (Pro-Board) through the Fire Department Safety Officers Association is at a record annual total.

The causes for the reduction in LODDs are not readily measurable. Although the number of deaths is down, the statistics do reflect a status quo or even regression in some ways. Statistics through November show that 68 percent of LODDs occurred away from the incident scene, or responding to the incident scene. Heart attack was the cause of 58 percent (46) of the deaths, vehicle collision 14 percent (11). Twenty-one firefighters who died were over the age of 61. The oldest was 86. Two firefighters were under the age of 21.

The National Fallen Firefighters Foundation's Everyone Goes Home Firefighter Life Safety Initiatives call for the certifications of firefighters. Perhaps the fire service is implementing and adopting this Initiative. The training required for certification may be a factor in the reduction of fireground deaths. However, 8 percent (6) of the LODDs involved firefighters losing their lives due to building collapse, being overtaken by advancing fire conditions or becoming disoriented.

The FDSOA, NIOSH, the IAFF and the IAFC all worked to reduce the number of LODDs in 2010. The FDSOA through safety officer training certification, NIOSH by investigating LODDs and making remedial recommendations and the IAFC's Rules of Engagement and the IAFF's Fire Ground Survival Program both show a commitment to reducing firefighter fatalities.

Technological improvements may be another LODD reduction factor. Several firefighters report "new" use of seat belts because of the strong reminders that come in the form of warning lights and buzzers in newly delivered apparatus.

Increased awareness of air management has changed the way departments treat low air warning alarms. Changes in roadway operations is apparent in most photos and videos, in the form of roadway safety vests on most (if not all) responders.

All of these improvements in safety operations and awareness may be contributing factors in the relatively low number of LODDs in 2010. Perhaps the "no fear" culture of the fire service is changing and we are entering a time when risk management prevails and we employ intellectual aggressiveness.
We still must address our biggest cause of LODDs — heart attack. We must look at age as a factor that increases risk. The Fire Service Joint Labor Management Wellness-Fitness Initiative should receive a renewed effort.

The fire service is committed to reducing LODDS, but the efforts must seriously review the statistics and make the necessary changes.

Can firefighters sue building owners?

Posted on Thu, 16 Oct 2014 12:31:43 UTC

Resurfacing with the news of two FDNY firefighter suing — one going after a homeowner for injuries to his shoulder incurred while responding to a residential fire — is the emotional debate as to whether or not the Firefighter's Rule should apply to bar lawsuits.

Here's the issue. An on-duty firefighter assumes the risk of working in conditions where the firefighter deliberately encounters certain types of hazards inherent to firefighting.

So, when the firefighter is injured in the course of an on-duty emergency response, should the firefighter be limited to worker's compensation or should the firefighter have the ability to recover against the property owner? And if so, under what circumstances?

Evolving over 120 years, under what was initially termed "The Fireman's Rule," a property owner was not liable to a firefighter for injuries sustained while fighting a fire [Gibson v. Leonard, 32 N.E. 182 (Ill.1892)].

Assumed risk
The Firefighter's Rule originated from the theory that firefighters assume the risk inherent in their job for which they are compensated with salary, disability/worker's compensation and pension benefits. This puts the burden of their financial loss on the public rather that an individual property owner.

Therefore, under this theory, lawsuits are not the correct method for compensating firefighters for injuries incurred as a result of the negligence that created the very need for their employment [Espinoza v. Schulenburg, 129 P.3d 937 (Ariz. 2006)].

Another theory supporting the Firefighter's Rule is that firefighters — unlike invited guests or business customers — are required by the nature of their job to enter premises at unforeseeable times and to enter into unusual parts of the premises, which may not otherwise be open to or accessible by the public.

Under this theory, firefighters are not considered in the same category as invited guests to the premises [Pearson v. Canada Contracting Co., Inc., 349 S.E.2d 106 (Va. 1986)].

Therefore, the Firefighter's Rule generally works to prevent a firefighter who is injured in the course of employment as a firefighter from recovering against the person whose negligence or recklessness caused the fire or other hazard resulting in the emergency response.

New York law
The Firefighter's Rule has evolved differently in different jurisdictions. Notably, in New York the legislature has effectively eliminated the Firefighter's Rule as it pertains to third-parties and allows both police officers and firefighters to bring a lawsuit against a third party when they are injured in the lawful discharge of their official duties where the injury is caused by that third party whose neglect, willful omission, or intentional, willful or culpable conduct resulted in that injury, disease or death [N.Y. General Obligation Law § 11-106 (McKinney 2001)].

Although the New York legislature opened the door to allow lawsuits previously barred by the rule, a plaintiff firefighter still has to go through the lawsuit process. This includes the potential for dismissal if the plaintiff can't come forward with evidence on all the elements of the claim — which includes establishing the culpable nature of the conduct and that the conduct was the cause of the injury.

In other jurisdictions, the Firefighter's Rule has been interpreted and applied narrowly, modified to create exceptions for the ability to sue landowners who fail to keep their premises in reasonably safe condition, or modified to create exceptions for failure to warn of an existing hazard.

How do you see this debate? Should a firefighter have the ability to bring a lawsuit against the person who caused the hazard?

Could elimination of the Firefighter's Rule adversely impact the public's willingness to call 911? Should this rule apply to volunteer or paid on call firefighters?

What other issues do you see? Continue the discussion in the comments section.

Firefighting PPE makers should offer consistent test data

Posted on Tue, 19 May 2015 17:46:35 UTC

Attend any large fire service conference and undoubtedly you will stroll through an exhibit hall with the latest and greatest from fire service equipment manufacturers. Among the exhibitors, you'll find manufacturers of personal protective equipment as well as the suppliers of the many fabrics and components that go into their construction.

As is the practice within this and other industries, manufacturers tout their specific advantages through a variety of demonstrations, display products, and literature. A substantial proportion of this information includes data illustrating or comparing the product or material/components performance against different standards or competitive products.

These claims are based on the data provided by the manufacturer or supplier and the accuracy and relevance of this information is often pivotal to judging the particular product or material/component in question.

While many times decisions come down to preferences based on price, product design and hopefully the trial use or field testing, consideration of data and test results figures into the selection process for many organizations. The problems that ensue are about the integrity of the data and the ability to both interpret and compare these data to make informed decisions.

What many fire departments do not know is that these data may not be the same data used when certifying a product to a specific standard. While this may seem to be a trivial difference, the fact is that some data can be drastically different depending on where the testing is performed and even under whose control the testing occurs.

Available upon request
Standards such as NFPA 1971 for turnout clothing establish a series of tests that measure the performance of the product or the materials used in their construction against specific performance requirements. In order to be certified, the product must meet all these minimum requirements.

For some, it may be deemed adequate that just meeting certification is enough. Yet, for some there can be a certain level of interest for knowing by how much a given product or its constituent parts exceed the minimum requirements.

Herein lies the challenge for discerning product differences.

What many departments do not know is that manufacturers are required to provide all certification data that demonstrates the compliance to an NFPA standard upon request. The actual certification reports are quite voluminous and can be hundreds of pages given the complexity of all the different parts that make up the clothing and its respective associated data.

This is not what end users want. Instead, it would be much more practical to provide this information in a simplified tabular form specific to a given product that is based on the certification data for that product instead of test results that may come from other sources.

Data variances
Why? Well, by having one source for this information — the certification organization — some of the observed variances and data from different laboratories can be eliminated and thus provide a more consistent comparison of product performance.

There is this tendency to look at a given test result and believe that the reported number is the true value of the products performance. The truth is that test results can vary much more than many of us would expect.

Take the example of a very common test that is applied to turnout gear — thermal protective performance (TPP). This test judges the overall insulation of the three layer — outer shell, moisture barrier and thermal barrier — used to construct firefighter protective clothing against the conditions of a flash fire.

It is the benchmark test for discerning level of thermal insulation performance provided by specific clothing products. The minimum requirement set within the governing NFPA 1971 standard is 35. Therefore any value of 35 or greater is considered acceptable.

Yet, as fire service industry has recognized for the last 15 years, there are trade-offs between high TPP values and the overall burden that the clothing places on the wearer terms of heat stress and other physiological effects. Therefore, the TPP value for a particular clothing system is pivotal in the choice of a particular product.

Margin of uncertainty
The shortcoming of relying on the exact number of making a determination is that every reported value comes with a level of uncertainty. In scientific terms, this principle is referred to as measurement uncertainty.

Essentially, this means that every number that you see from manufacturer or supplier really has a plus or minus associated with it. For instance, a particular set of turnout clothing for which material composite had TPP value of 40, and the measurement uncertainty for this test was 10 percent, then the actual value of TPP for the clothing could be plus or minus four, or a range of 36 to 44.

Measurement uncertainty becomes important because in making comparisons from one product to another we tend to look at the differences in the test data. In the case of a clothing product with the TPP reported at 40 and another clothing product that has the TPP value of 42, there could be the inclination to judge the higher value as the better system.

Yet the range of data that would be expected for both clothing products would overlap considerably. A more statistically based conclusion would be that these systems are actually very similar and could be judged equivalent.

Data made easy
A more significant difference might be where the actual reported values are farther apart such as a system with the TPP of 40 versus a system having a TPP rating of 50. Applying a 10 percent rule, the range of TPP for the first system is 36 to 44, while the range for the second system is 45 to 55. These data do not overlap.

Thinking of data as having a certain level of uncertainty tends to make the differences in product performance seem less significant and has a large impact on product selection.

Also, if this approach is coupled with having consistent data from a limited number of sources that include only the certification organizations, then the ability to make decisions between products becomes more accurate.

Although NFPA standards require manufacturers provide certification data upon request, we advocate that additional requirements within the standards are needed to present these data in a more readable and easily interpreted fashion.

We expect some resistance to the proposal because not all product manufacturers control their data, particularly when it comes from multiple material and component suppliers. In addition, not all manufacturers will want these data shared because they fear that end users will overly scrutinize these data and not account for measurement uncertainty.

Yet, it is our firm belief that data that is consistent and properly presented can only help the industry and provide a fairer comparison of product performance than what is offered only in product literature.

A farewell to volunteer, but not to service

Posted on Mon, 20 May 2013 13:51:32 UTC

It was more than a decade ago that I started VolunteerFD.org to bring together volunteer fire departments to share best practices and solve shared problems. What started as an idea grew into a network of over 25,000 departments sharing their bylaws, fundraising, grants, SOPs, training, and recruitment and retention programs.

In this time I have written more than 100 articles, and this will be my last regular article.

For me, as with many of you, volunteering has been a lifelong passion. My mother jokes that I did my first call about a month before I was born. My father and pregnant mother spent rode out a storm in the firehouse serving food to hundreds were without power or shelter.

I remember growing up in that firehouse, always wanting to be a firefighter; I couldn’t wait to join the explorers at 14. My father was chief, and there was a time when I wanted to be chief also.

A path of learning
Since my start in the fire service, I have collected just about every certification I could and spent countless hours listening to "dinosaurs" to learn everything I could about firefighting.

I also earned my paramedic license and spent 8 years in commercial EMS. I thought about being a paid firefighter, but realized that I could make more of an impact teaching others.

That started me on a path that would end in my earning a Ph.D in adult learning with a dissertation being on how paramedics learn.

As with many volunteers, my path in life has taken me away from the fire service. I continue to serve, but am on a slightly different mission.

'You can have everything in life you want'
I have found my focus and mission in life, which is to improve healthcare through learning. It may be a hefty goal, but as Zig Ziglar said, "You can have everything in life you want if you just help enough other people get what they want."

I have chosen to dedicate my life to the goal of improving healthcare through learning due to the combination of spending too much time with my mother in the hospital and a chance run-in.

One day I was sitting in the EMS lunchroom when a medic came in all happy and cheery. I asked the medic what happened, and he said, "I've been a medic a year, and I haven't killed anyone yet."

Maybe I was naïve, but I asked the QI person if this was real, and he said, unfortunately, yes. I then asked, "What percentage of the staff would you allow to work on your own family?"

I won’t share that answer here, but needless to say it was so low it set me on a path to improve healthcare for my family and yours.

Luckily I now find myself working for a health system that is truly pioneering and that is just as passionate about improving healthcare as I am. This has taken me more than 600 miles from home and that firehouse I grew up in, but I know it is the right thing to do.

Continued service
I no longer volunteer as a firefighter, but I continue to serve. I try to help every department and member that contacts me and I continue to try to share the knowledge at VolunteerFD.org and speak at local and national conferences.

There may come a day when I am back in the volunteer fire service and I will likely start writing again at that time. Until then I leave VolunteerFD.org in the hands of the Praetorian Group and all of the great staff and columnists of the network including FireRescue1 and EMS1.

I also encourage you all to take up the cause of sharing your best practices and solving problems together. If there is one thing I have learned about the volunteer fire service it is that there is always another volunteer who is looking to help, and that is why there will always be a great tradition and service.

If there is ever any way I can help you, please do not hesitate to ask. You can always catch me on LinkedIn.

Arson is about firefighter safety

Posted on Fri, 8 May 2015 17:31:40 UTC

On May 8, 2013 firefighter Brian Woehlke died fighting a restaurant fire that was ruled arson. The 29-year-old had been on the Wayne-Westland (Mich.) Fire Department for only six months. He left behind a young daughter and a wife.

The anniversary made local news in part because the criminal(s) has not been caught.

The anniversary of firefighter Woehlke's death coincides with the end of this year's National Arson Awareness Week. In my mind, arson is a firefighter-safety issue.

USFA estimates that there are nearly 17,000 intentionally set residential structure fires per year, which works out to 5 percent of all building fires. NFPA says that in 2010, there were 27,000 intentionally set residential fires, which is 60 percent of all arson fires for that year.

Firefighting is dangerous; we all knew when we signed on that the next call may be our last. Yet, no firefighter should be hurt or killed over a curious child, a vandalizing teen, a thrill-seeking mope, a distraught lover, a greedy business owner, a rioting thug or any other classification of person who intentionally sets fires.

So, what can be done? Arson is difficult to prevent, detect and prove.

On the prevention side, we can work with municipal leaders to have abandoned structures demolished or at least secured and marked as abandoned. We can include messages about juvenile fire setting in fire-prevention efforts. We can have candid discussions about firefighter arson within our ranks, and take steps to keep potential arsonists out of fire departments.

On the detection and prosecution side, small- and medium-sized departments need to have people trained in investigation. Even if those individuals cannot conduct a full investigation, awareness-level training will help those county or state investigators who will follow up.

We can do quick evidence collection, even if only video or photo evidence, prior to overhaul operations. Suppression activities destroy evidence — that's just the nature of the game.

We're not able to freeze a crime scene the way police can. Grabbing what evidence we can when there's a break in the action may be a game-changer.

We can get good witness and firefighter statements about the incident early, while memories are still fresh in their minds. The human brain is very good at creating believable, yet false memories to fill in where gaps exist; early statements are critical.

There is plenty more we can all do. The International Association of Arson Investigators is a good place to start learning more.

Arson prevention, detection and prosecution are not easy; if they were, there would be no more arson. Yet, the efforts and expense are worth it if they can prevent one more Brian Woehlke from missing out on his daughter's life.

More uses for locking pliers

Posted on Fri, 30 Mar 2012 14:36:44 UTC

Previously, I looked at how to maximize locking pliers; here are some additional uses. Locking pliers can be used in a number of ways to keep different styles of self-closing doors open.

As seen above, clamping the locking pliers on the hinge of a self-closing door can prevent to door from closing. The top hinge is the most preferred location because it keeps the tool up where it can be seen, and lessens the chance of leaving it behind.

Certain styles of door-closing mechanisms also can be held open by clamping to tool directly on the door closer itself.

The photo above shows the locking pliers being used to hold open a storm door. This works well when the normal keeper, or door open clip, is broken or missing.

The main problem with storm doors is that they typically involve a piano-style hinge, which have a four- to six-inch gap beneath them when in the open position. These features make it nearly impossible to use a standard door wedge with any success.

The photo above shows the locking pliers being used to prevent a magnetic lock from locking the door. Placing the tool on the magnet prevents the door from latching closed.

This simple trick is helpful when walking through a building while investigating an activated fire alarm, during a pre-incident plan walk through, or other nonemergency situations.

On some door handles the locking pliers can be clamped on the handle allowing the tool to extend in front of the latching mechanism to prevent the door from locking. This too is useful during nonemergency situations.

Some styles of rim locks can be twisted off with a set of locking pliers, allowing for a through-the-lock method of forcible entry.

Locking pliers also have nonforcible-entry uses. Here, the pliers are being used to shut off a gas meter. This technique works well in confined-space situations where obstructions prevent larger tools, like a Halligan bar, from reaching and operating the valve.

Locking pliers can be used in a number of different ways on the fireground. With the simple eye-bolt modification and a creative mind, this tool is tremendously useful to have on hand.

Fire department tests bounce-house rescue device

Posted on Wed, 1 Apr 2015 10:01:07 UTC

POKENIOUT, Mass — With the rash of inflatable bounce houses taking flight last summer, one fire department is "aiming" to do something about it.

New Bedford neighbor Pokeniout (Mass.) Fire Department is beta testing a device one of its members invented that will make quick work of fly-away bounce houses.

The invention, dubbed Rescuepoon, incorporates a medieval crossbow and now-outlawed lawn darts tied to a spool of deep-sea fishing line.

The device works like this. When a call comes in for an escaped bounce house, the fire department will deploy its Rescuepoon crew, that will put the dart in the crossbow and fire it into the bounce house.

"If the dart seats well enough into the bounce house, we can reel it in," said Pokeniout Fire Chief Isley Fulakrap. "If not, we use the line to track it once it lands."

The device was relatively cheap to build, the chief said. The only difficulty was locating lawn darts, which were taken off the market in 1988 following a previous ban in the 1970s. Chief Fulakrap says they are working up a modified version for when they buy up all of the Ebay and Etsy supply of darts.

That version, RescuepoonXL, will use a harpoon gun to fire a four-foot pike pole, also tethered to fishing line. The XL will be heavier and harder to store, the chief said, but he believes it will have a 35 percent greater shooting distance and be less susceptible to wind conditions.

Although the chief was extremely positive about the Rescuepoon, he did say it had a few minor bugs to sort out.

"It took us a while to train up our guys on the crossbow, and there may have been one or two mishaps with passing birds," Chief Fulakrap said. "We did nick a Rescue Randy Jr. in the head one time and one of our captains lanced Engine 1's rear tire."

Chief Fulakrap said he also plans to push bounce house makers to make them safer for kids by designing them to deflate faster when pierced.

"You pop a Jart into one of those suckers and it takes on a mind of it's own," the chief said. "In our testing, we've seem 'em do four, maybe five complete high-speed 360s before slamming into the ground. We just want the manufacturers to take some responsibility for kids' safety."

The chief plans to deploy the Rescuepoon this summer.

Safety tips for winter-weather response

Posted on Tue, 28 Jan 2014 08:28:50 UTC

Winter has settled in with record lows, dangerous wind chills and significant snowfall covering much of the nation. Unfortunately, how people respond to these weather events can result in house fires, automobile crashes, carbon monoxide poisonings and personal injuries.

Likewise, how you respond to incidents when the weather is a factor requires extra consideration to ensure your safety as well as those who've called for our help.

Statistics from the U.S. Fire Administration and the National Fire Protection Association confirm what most of us know from our experience in the fire service: that house fires increase during the winter months. The majority of these fires are a result of food left on the stove, candles left near flammable items like decorations or curtains, or space heaters left unattended and close to flammable objects.

When we're called to a winter house fire, we're not just attacking the fire and smoke in the structure or searching for potential victims. We also have to be attuned to what's happening as a result of snow, ice, freezing rain or wind. Snow accumulation on the house and tree limbs, ice that may already be surrounding the house or that will develop from flowing water, and low-hanging or downed wires can all impede our work.

Maintaining situational awareness is imperative. Pay attention to what's going on around you on the scene, including with the structure and your crew. Proper ladder placement is critical in any incident, but when these harsh weather conditions come into play, we must be extra diligent. When possible get someone to heel the ladder for extra stability.

Road safety
Similarly, how people drive can be affected by the weather. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, roughly 24 percent of all vehicle crashes in the United States occur during rain, sleet, snow or fog, and the slick pavement it produces.

Keep this in mind when responding to the scene of a crash during bad weather: If the driver who you are on your way to assist had difficulty seeing due to fog, heavy rain or blowing snow, or hit black ice, you should expect to experience the same conditions. While it's important to arrive to a scene quickly, it's far more important that you arrive safely.

It's also critical to be conscientious of how you and others around you are driving at all times. It's common for motorists to become nervous behind the wheel in inclement weather.

That level of uneasiness only increases when they hear sirens or see lights behind them. Their reactions, such as stopping short in front of you or skidding into oncoming traffic, may result in another incident.

Drive appropriately for the weather conditions. And remember that driving defensively doesn't mean driving aggressively.

Above all else, use your seat belts every time wheels roll. Whether you're responding in your personal vehicle or department apparatus, it's imperative that you buckle up. It’s that simple.

The bottom line: Stay alert, drive smart, be safe and stay warm.

Eight Things to Do for Your Crew in 2008

Posted on Wed, 2 Jan 2008 12:23:09 UTC

With 2008 under way, it's time for us to reflect on the year past and to begin developing our plans for the future. Here are eight straightforward ideas that company officers can use right now to help their crews stay ahead in 2008.

1. Be an informer
Passing on relevant information about decisions, plans and activities to the people (your firefighters) who need it to do their work is vital. You can't expect them to accomplish goals that they know nothing about. Discuss the daily objectives at the morning briefing, including any training, inspections, pre-fire plans or scheduled community education. You can never provide too much information to your people.

2. Promote the team
Crew cohesion, or working together as a team, is an important human factor in firefighter safety and for getting things done. Problems with crew cohesion have been identified with several near-misses and tragic accidents. Look for and promote good work practices that safely and effectively accomplish team objectives. Stress the importance of how individual capabilities contribute to the team's success.

3. Create a training plan to keep your crew ready Your training goal should be to prepare your firefighters to be ready to operate safely and effectively at any intensity level, anywhere, anytime, and to return home alive. Readiness training demands teamwork, dedication and sustained practice. Create a flexible and believable training plan that addresses the training needs for your crew while prioritizing those training needs, focusing on safety first.

4. Address problems as they occur
Be willing to confront problems head on and have those tough conversations with your firefighters. A team that is comfortable talking openly with each other, and willing to air their disagreements or problems, will move forward together. Identify and remediate all performance issues immediately, understanding that everyone operates at a different level.

5. Define your expectations and keep them believable
It's pretty simple. Let your crew know what you expect of them. Here are a few examples: Be safe by responding safely, following operational policies, maintaining and operating equipment properly, and practicing personnel accountability. Be proficient by training for readiness and improvement, arriving on scene ready to work, communicating effectively, and following the chain of command. Be professional by practicing a positive image all the time, everywhere you go. Be nice to each other and everyone you meet. If your team makes an effort to follow these basic expectations, you will have a safe and rewarding year.

6. Motivate them
Recognize the likes and differences of your firefighters to help you motivate them to be a more productive team. Appeal to their individual emotions and values to generate enthusiasm for their work. Invite their participation when making decisions, and allow them to have responsibility in carrying out their work activities.


7. Recognize and praise them, at the right time
Provide praise and recognition for excellent (not ordinary) performance. If it's really good work, put it in writing. Be specific about what you are praising. Give praise for weak performance that’s improving. Recognizing their efforts shows your appreciation for the work they do.

8. Support and mentor them
Act friendly and considerate. Be patient and helpful. Do things to facilitate your firefighters' skill development and career enhancement. Be responsive to their requests for assistance or support, and set an example for proper behavior. Be their leader.

Take some time and see if you can add a few ideas to the list. Even if you can only address a few of these recommendations you'll be on the road to developing a fresh attitude and healthy approach for a new and exciting year.

10 ways to better respond to special needs patients

Posted on Wed, 9 Jul 2014 10:59:06 UTC

Paramedics and first responders tasks are becoming increasingly challenging with the growing number of special needs patients. According to the 2010 census, 2.8 million school age children were reported to have a disability.

In order to minimize problems and have an effective response, EMS and fire must create a stronger partnership and network with the special needs community. Here are 10 steps to successfully do so.

1. Don’t assume the patient has a mental disability based on their looks.

“Approach a special needs patient as you would a colleague,” said Pete Kelly, EMT-B, medical staff coordinator for Special Olympics Michigan. Once you have established mental and physical ability, than treat accordingly.

2. Have a Town Hall meeting with citizens and all essential resources.

Have 30 minute panel discussion with fire, EMS, law enforcement, transportation and a special needs specialist followed by a meet and greet. This is a great way to hear special needs populations’ concerns.

3. Encourage caregivers to keep information up to date.

The American College of Emergency Physicians and the American Academy of Pediatrics created an Emergency Information Form (EIF). The EIF is a valuable tool for first responders. Click here to download the form.

4. Develop a Special Needs Registry.

Emergency management agencies are creating an online registry to locate citizens with a disability during an emergency. Ohio County recently launched their website ReadyAllenCounty.org. Sites are usually in the cloud and need to be secure.

5. Include people with disabilities into emergency response plans.

The U.S. Department of Justice provides an American with Disabilities Act Checklist for Emergency Shelters.

6. Don’t separate equipment from the patient.

During an evacuation or a transport to the ER, try to keep the equipment with and the patient. Separation from an object can create outburst in some patients.

7. Be familiar with the equipment.

First responders can’t always keep up with the latest wheel chairs and devices. Here are a few of the latest devices. Convaid offers a special needs wheelchair product line that has advanced design, seating and mobility combinations for a variety of special needs and physical disabilities.

A child with a TheraTogs Lower Extremity System might be a challenge to transport. The device is designed to address several alignment and functional deviations of the knee joints, developing femurs, and hip joints in a child.

8. Keep the routine.

Mary Porter, owner of Tri-Care, says when dealing with a patient that cannot verbalize a compliant, Tri-Care staff often knows there is a problem when a patient is not sticking to the routine.

9. Get trained.

In recent years there has been a surge in organizations that have created training for first responders. About 1 in 88 children have been identified with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) according to estimates from CDC's Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network.

In addition, Autism ALERT’s mission is to educate first responders and health care professionals on how to recognize and interact with persons on the autism spectrum.

FEMA also suggests the independent study courses offered by Emergency Management Institute IS-197.EM Special Needs Planning Consideration.

10. Use the right communication.

Minimize distractions and use short explanations and use simple language, if the patient has trouble hearing. If you do not understand something the individual says, do not pretend that you do. Ask the individual to repeat what he or she said and then repeat it back. Be patient.

Creating a strategic plan before, during, and after an incident with special needs population is the most effective way to have a good response and recovery.

Fire attack: Understanding landmark buildings

Posted on Tue, 6 Jan 2015 17:44:41 UTC

Fires in landmark structures pose some unique operational challenges for fire department, foremost being the mindset of the initial responding companies. The default mindset for firefighters is to quickly initiate an interior offensive attack on the fire using 1¾-inch lines. Such a predetermined mode of operations often results in unsafe, ineffective and inefficient operations when responding to older, longstanding commercial structures.

Let's consider what some of those unique challenges look like.

Older structures can typically include a mixture of construction types, such as wood-framed and ordinary, as the building has undergone modifications over the years. This results in the creation of unprotected void spaces for fire travel, incompatible electrical systems that are prone to overloading, and improper and overabundant storage (due to lack of space).

Keep these three pre-arrival fire development characteristics in mind when attacking a landmark fire.

Fires that originate outside of normal business hours, especially during the overnight hours, will quickly develop beyond the incipient stage and be into the well-developed stage — the point at which an offensive interior fire attack starts to become unsafe, ineffective and inefficient.

Fires will quickly locate and spread to those unprotected void spaces, like those between multiple ceilings. Fires are more likely to be showing from multiple points that are remote from the point of origin.

The percentage of the total building involved in fire will be greater as will the total BTUs being generated by the fire.

Discussion questions

  • What is your initial size-up of the incident?
  • What would your Incident Action Plan entail for this fire according to your size-up?
  • How do the tactical actions of the fire officers and firefighters in the video compare to your IAP?
  • What corrective actions, if any, would you take as the incident commander?
  • How would you compare and contrast the use of multiple smaller-caliber streams and fewer large-caliber streams for managing a fire like this one depicted in the video.
  • What role will issues such as water management, air pollution, impact on personnel, etc., play in your small- vs. large-caliber debate?

3 legal lessons to learn from 2011

Posted on Tue, 20 Dec 2011 16:26:29 UTC

As the year draws to a close, it is worth reviewing some of the legal issues to hit the fire and emergency medical services in 2011.

Social media is a big deal for emergency service organizations
Emergency service organizations, states, dispatch centers and non-profits are implementing social media in ways that have positively impacted public safety. At the same time, social media channels present a variety of liability risks that must be managed.

Organizations that use social media to engage in two-way conversations with the public are particularly at risk. For example, emergency service organizations that allow members of the public to post in their social media channels may face First Amendment liability when they attempt to remove or edit offensive posts.

These organizations may also face liability if members of the public place calls for help using social media channels and receive no response.

When using social media to communicate with the public, emergency service organizations should use social media like a news feed, not a telephone, providing information but not receiving it.

Organizations must also have published attorney-reviewed social media policies that use disclaimers to discourage citizens from using social media as an alternative to the 911 system.

Restricting social media use among paid employees also has risks. Disciplining employees for comments or other postings they make in social media channels outside of work may create First Amendment liability.

Recent actions from the National Labor Relations Board ("NLRB"), the federal agency responsible for employee-labor relations, suggest that a social media policy that is overly restrictive of employee speech violates the National Labor Relations Act even if the offensive policy is never enforced.

Organizations with paid employees should review internal social media policies to determine whether a particular restriction is necessary to preserve the core operations of the organization.

Provisions that punish employees for making offensive or annoying comments in social media channels during non-working hours will generally not pass muster.

It is extremely important to consult with an attorney licensed to practice in your state prior to terminating any employee for their use of social media.

And the labor laws, they are a changing...
The laws governing the relationship between employers and unions are being revisited in a dramatic fashion after years of stagnation.
At the national level, Obama administration policies are shifting the employer-labor balance in favor of the unions. Recent NLRB complaints, NLRB appointments and executive orders have signaled a sharp union-friendly departure from the Bush administration.

Although most emergency service workers' unions fall under the purview of the state labor laws, many states model their labor laws after the federal law and NLRB interpretations are influential.

At the same time, some Republican-controlled states are attempting to sharply curtail the collective bargaining rights of public sector unions.

Wisconsin, Ohio, Tennessee and Indiana have considered restricting or already restricted collective bargaining rights.
Even in those states that have not modified the laws, government officials are becoming increasingly resistant to any pay increases for both union and non-union paid responders.

In many cases, officials have relied on volunteers to minimize the impact of funding and personnel cuts.
As states continue to experience budget shortfalls, there will likely be continued shifts in this area which organizations must monitor.

Mutual aid agreements
The continued trend of waning volunteerism and cuts to paid departments have emphasized the need to revisit or readjust mutual aid agreements. Although some states have adopted statewide mutual aid systems by statute, many communities rely on agreements with surrounding departments not only to manage large incident but for day to day coverage.

Although the components of mutual aid agreements will be addressed in a future article, effective agreements must clearly define the relationship between responders from different organizations, allocate risks and create functional mechanisms for reimbursements.

Specifically, mutual aid agreements should deal with the chain of command, workers' compensation coverage, reimbursement for expenses and equipment damage, EMS and hazmat billing rights and payment of overtime.

This article is not intended as legal advice and there is no substitute for competent legal counsel licensed to practice in your state.